Factors affecting motivations, obstacles, and performance of Women Entrepreneurs in Sindh, Pakistan


  • Annam Inayat Lecturer, Department of Management Sciences, NUML Hyderabad Campus, Pakistan. Author
  • Dodo Khan Alias Khalid Malokani Assistant Professor, Department of Business Administration Government College University, Hyderabad, Pakistan. Author
  • Duaa Ayaz Student at HIAST, Hyderabad, Pakistan. Author


Women entrepreneurs, Internal and external factors, Motivation, Success and Barriers


Women Entrepreneurship in Pakistan; Motivations, Success and Barriers a study on Sindh, Pakistan. An entrepreneur is someone who explores new opportunities, business, products/ services, or ideas (Kuratko 2016). During the early 1980s, the Women Entrepreneurship has elicited suitable recognition, especially as a driver of economic growth and development. According to Roomi and Parrott (2008), the women position throughout Pakistan is not homogenous. Cultural practices and norms related to role and status of women and religious prescriptions vary widely in the Pakistani society. Pakistani researchers have also critically examined existing literature on women entrepreneurship in Pakistan. Primary focus of this research study is about the very less work or no research evidence found in the province of Sindh, Pakistan on women entrepreneurship (Ashique, Najia, Ali, and Rajjar, 2012; Saad and Rajjar 2015). The data in this study is Primary, and involve gathering of research figures straight from the respondents using a structured 5-point Likert scale with the help of questionnaire based on women entrepreneurship. The population of the study consist of female entrepreneurs running businesses or involved in entrepreneurial activities from both urban and rural areas of Sindh. In this study, to ensure an adequate sample, data is collected from 150 respondents (female entrepreneurs). Regression method was used to analyze the data. This analysis is performed with the help of SPSS software. The current study uses the dependence model for testing the data because each hypothesis measures the impact of one independent variable on three dependent variables that is motivation, success and barriers women entrepreneurs face while becoming entrepreneurs. Result of this study suggests that 71% of the female are of age group 15-25 years, are energetic and most willing to start their own business, among all motivational factors including to be their own boss is having strongly positive impact to peruse entrepreneurship rather than regular job, among all success factors female entrepreneurs believed that having good managerial skills lead to successful business. Week economy and lack of laws regulations in the country is causing a huge barrier to begin their own business according to the responses of entrepreneurs belonging to female group.  Furthermore, the study suggests that Government of Pakistan should propose business laws and ensure its practice in the small and medium size enterprises. Also, there are many programs offered by the Pakistani Government to promote entrepreneurship but female and nascent entrepreneurs are not aware of these programs at large. So, these programs should be introduced in all educational institutes and universities so that female entrepreneurs should get most of it. 



Abbasi, U. (2015). Female entrepreneurship in Pakistan. Retrieved from http://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2015/11/25/comment/female-entrepreneurship-in-pakistan/

Akehurst, G., Simarro, E., & Mas‐Tur, A. (2012). Women entrepreneurship in small service firms: motivations, barriers and performance. The Service Industries Journal, 32(15), 2489-2505.

Alam, S. S., Jani, M. F. M., & Omar, N. A. (2011). An empirical study of success factors of women entrepreneurs in southern region in Malaysia. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 3(2), 166.

Al-Sadi, R., Belwal, R., & Al-Badi, R. (2011). Woman entrepreneurship in the Al-Batinah region of Oman: An identification of the barriers. Journal of International Women's Studies, 12(3), 58.

Anjum, M., Khan, N., Raza, S. A., & Fatima, S. (2012). Problems and prospects of women entrepreneurs: a case study of Quetta-Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(23).

Bhardwaj, B. (2014). Impact of education and training on performance of women entrepreneurs: A study in emerging market context. Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 6(1), 38-52.

Bordens, K. (2006). Research Design & Methods. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods. Oxford University Press.

Carter, N., Brush, C., Greene, P., Gatewood, E., & Hart, M. (2003). Women entrepreneurs who break through to equity financing: the influence of human, social and financial capital. Venture Capital: an international journal of entrepreneurial finance, 5(1), 1-28.

Constantinidis, C., Cornet, A., & Asandei, S. (2006). Financing of women-owned ventures: The impact of gender and other owner-and firm-related variables. Venture Capital, 8(02), 133-157.

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Dangi, N. (2014). Women Entrepreneurship and Growth and Performance of MSMEs in India. International Journal, 2(4).

Ekpe, I., Mat, N. B., & Razak, R. C. (2010). The Effect of Microfinance Factors on Women Entrepreneurs' Performance in Nigeria: A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Business and social science, 1(2).

Goheer, N. A. (2003). Women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. International Labour Organization.

Haq, A., & Safavian, M. (2013). Are Pakistan's Women Entrepreneurs Being Served by the Microfinance Sector? Are They Being Served by the Microfinance Sector? World Bank Publications.

Hughes, K. D. (2006). Exploring motivation and success among Canadian women entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 19(2), 107-120.

Idrus, S., Pauzi, N. M., & Munir, Z. A. (2014). The effectiveness of training model for women entrepreneurship program. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, 82-89.

Jamali, D. (2009). Constraints and opportunities facing women entrepreneurs in developing countries: A relational perspective. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 24(4), 232-251.

Kaur, R., & Bawa, S. (1999). Psychological correlates of entrepreneurial performance among women. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 8(2), 195-205.

Kirkwood, J. (2009). Spousal roles on motivations for entrepreneurship: A qualitative study in New Zealand. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 30(4), 372-385.

Le, Q. V., & Raven, P. V. (2015). Woman entrepreneurship in rural Vietnam: success and motivational factors. The Journal of Developing Areas, 49(2), 57-76.

Leszczyński, D. (2013). The investigation into motivations, success factors and barriers among women small business owners: An overview of extant literature. International Journal of Management and Economics, 39(1), 108-125.

Lockyer, J., & George, S. (2012). What women want: barriers to female entrepreneurship in the West Midlands. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 4(2), 179-195.

Mack, N., Woodsong, C., MacQueen, K. M., Guest, G., & Namey, E. (2005). Qualitative research methods: a data collector’s field guide.

Mahmood, B., Khalid, S., Sohail, M., & Babak, I. (2012). Exploring the Motivation and Barriers in Way of Pakistani Female Entrepreneurs. British Journal of Education, Society & Behavioural Science, 2(4), 353-368.

Makhijani, H. B., Kumbhar, M. I., Mughal, S., & Talpur, U. (2015). Women Entrepreneurship: Problems Faced by Rural Women Entrepreneurs in Sindh Province of Pakistan. Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 11, 274.

Makweba, V. (2014). The Impacts of Financial and Family Support in Motivating Women Entrepreneurs Tobecome Successful: THE CASE OF ILALA MUNICIPALITY (Degree of Masters of Science in Entrepreneurship). Mzumbe University.

Ming-Yen, T. W., & Siong-Choy, C. (2007). Theorising a framework of factors influencing performance of women entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 3(2), 1.

Niethammer, C., Saeed, T., Mohamed, S. S., & Charafi, Y. (2007). Women Entrepreneurs and Access to Finance in Pakistan. Women's Policy Journal of Harvard, 4.

Noorinasab, A. R., & Azmoon, J. (2014). Status and Barriers of Women's Entrepreneurship in Iran: An Overview. International Journal of Entrepreneurship & Business Environment Perspectives, 3(1), 821.

Orser, B. J., Riding, A. L., & Manley, K. (2006). Women entrepreneurs and financial capital. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 643-665.

Roomi, M. A., & Parrott, G. (2008). Barriers to development and progression of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 17(1), 59-72.

Roomi, M., & Harrison, P. (2010). Behind the veil: women-only entrepreneurship training in Pakistan. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 150-172.

Roy, S., & Manna, S. (2014). Women in Entrepreneurship: Issues of Motivation and Choice of Business. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Management, 3(2).

Sadi, M. A., & Al-Ghazali, B. M. (2010). Doing business with impudence: A focus on women entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. African Journal of Business Management, 4(1), 1-11.

Saunders, M. N., Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2011). Research methods for business students, 5/e. Pearson Education India

Tlaiss, H. (2013). Entrepreneurial motivations of women: Evidence from the United Arab Emirates. International Small Business Journal, 0266242613496662.

Vadnjal, J., & Vadnjal, M. (2013). The role of husbands: Support or barrier to women's entrepreneurial start-ups?. African Journal of Business Management, 7(36), 3730.

WEF: Global Gender Gap Report 2015. (2016). Retrieved from http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2015/economies/#economy=PAK

Weiss, N. A., & Weiss, C. A. (2012). Introductory statistics. Pearson Education.

Welsh, D., Memili, E., & Kaciak, E. (2016). An empirical analysis of the impact of family moral support on Turkish women entrepreneurs. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 1(1). 3-12.

Zhouqiaoqin, Z., Ying, X., Lu, Z., & Kumah, S. (2013). Factors that influence the success of women entrepreneur in China: a survey of women entrepreneurs in Beijing. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science. 18(3), 83-91.




How to Cite

Factors affecting motivations, obstacles, and performance of Women Entrepreneurs in Sindh, Pakistan. (2022). International Research Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 3(1), 40-57. https://irjmss.com/index.php/irjmss/article/view/91

Similar Articles

1-10 of 69

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.