Formation of Social Capital by Women Entrepreneurship via Business Development Institutions of Government in Sindh


  • Mehtab Siddique Assistant Professor, Institute of Commerce, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan Author
  • Dr. Ashiq Jhatial Institute of Commerce, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan Author
  • Dr. Muneer-ud-Din Soomro Institute of Commerce, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan Author


Social capital, Women Entrepreneurship, Business development, Sindh, Pakistan


Major focus of this is to investigate how Government business development institutes have been creating social capital, supporting women entrepreneurship in Sindh province. This study takes into account the pluralistic approach i.e. a blend of qualitative methods. The content matric analyses method from the qualitative approach was employed for the study. The eight key research themes were emerged under three dimensions of social capital based on Naphiet and Ghoshal 1998. The structural dimension included the Promotion of women entrepreneurs, Strengthen women entrepreneurs, Networking, and Dissemination of information. The cognitive dimension included Shared goals and Exchange of information. The relational dimension included Trust and Cooperation and commitment. The results in content analysis explained that government business development institutes had been working independently and in collaboration with other organizations to provide counseling and consulting services, arranging training, workshops, and exhibitions that helped towards progressive entrepreneurship movement among women.  Further, It was found out that every construct had an adequate number of indicators loaded. As a result, all constructs were retained. However, future researchers need to look at some other items to be added to have more number of items in each construct.


Ajjan, H., Beninger, S., Mostafa, R., & Crittenden, V. L. (2014). Empowering women entrepreneurs in emerging economies: A conceptual model. Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, 5(1), 16-30.

Ata-Ur-Rehman, A. U. R., Afghani, S., Akmal, M., & Yousaf, R. (2008, February). Microcontroller and sensors based gesture vocalizer. In Proceedings of the 7th WSEAS International Conference on Signal Processing, Robotics and Automation (pp. 82-87).


Bajaj, B. K., Raina, S., & Singh, S. (2013). Killer toxin from a novel killer yeast Pichia kudriavzevii RY55 with idiosyncratic antibacterial activity. Journal of basic microbiology, 53(8), 645-656.

Ball, L. (2014). Long-term damage from the Great Recession in OECD countries. European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention, 11(2), 149-160.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

Brown, A. G. A., Vallenari, A., Prusti, T. J. D. B. J. H., De Bruijne, J. H. J., Babusiaux, C., Bailer-Jones, C. A. L., ... & Bertone, S. (2018). Gaia Data Release 2-Summary of the contents and survey properties. Astronomy & astrophysics, 616, A1.

Draper-Gil, G., Lashkari, A. H., Mamun, M. S. I., & Ghorbani, A. A. (2016, February). Characterization of encrypted and vpn traffic using time-related. In Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on information systems security and privacy (ICISSP) (pp. 407-414).

Ekpe, I., Mat, N. B., & Razak, R. C. (2010). The effect of microfinance factors on women entrepreneurs' performance in Nigeria: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Business and social science, 1(2).

Erokhin, V., Berzina, T., Camorani, P., Smerieri, A., Vavoulis, D., Feng, J., & Fontana, M. P. (2011). Material memristive device circuits with synaptic plasticity: learning and memory. BioNanoScience, 1(1-2), 24-30.

Faraudello, A., & Songini, L. (2018). Women’s Role in Family Business: Evolution and Evidences from a European Case Study. Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, 14(2), 70-89.

Iqbal, N., & Iqbal, N. (2014). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in cancers: overexpression and therapeutic implications. Molecular biology international, 2014.


Jamil, F., Ismail, K., Siddique, M., Khan, M. M., Kazi, A. G., & Qureshi, M. I. (2016). Business incubators in Asian developing countries. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(4S).

Jostins, L., Ripke, S., Weersma, R. K., Duerr, R. H., McGovern, D. P., Hui, K. Y., ... & Cho, J. H. (2012). Host–microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease. Nature, 491(7422), 119-124.

Kim, D. S., Kim, T., Kwon, H. I., & Park, J. W. (2018). Two variable higher-order Fubini polynomials. Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society, 55(4), 975-986.

Kim, J. (2018). Philosophy of mind. Routledge.

Kyrö, P., & Sundin, E. (2008). Women entrepreneurship and social capital: A dialogue and construction. Copenhagen Business School Press DK.

Mandić, L., Đukić, D., Semenov, A., Vesković, S., Vlajić, S., & Đurović, V. (2019). Mikrobiološka ocena sanitarnog stanja zemljišta. Zbornik radova 1, 24. Savetovanje o biotehnologiji sa međunarodnim učešćem, Čačak, 15-16. mart 2019., 351-355.

Miravitlles, M., Soler-Cataluña, J. J., Calle, M., Molina, J., Almagro, P., Quintano, J. A., ... & Ancochea, J. (2017). Spanish Guidelines for Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GesEPOC) 2017. Pharmacological Treatment of Stable Phase. Archivos de bronconeumologia, 53(6), 324-335.

Muske, G., Woods, M., Swinney, J., & Khoo, C. (2007). Small businesses and the community: Their role and importance within a state's economy. Journal of Extension, 45(1), 1-7.

Nahapiet, J., & Ghoshal, S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of management review, 23(2), 242-266.

Narvaiza, L., Aragon-Amonarriz, C., Iturrioz-Landart, C., Bayle-Cordier, J., & Stervinou, S. (2017). Cooperative dynamics during the financial crisis: Evidence from Basque and Breton case studies. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 46(3), 505-524.

Neira, I., Portela, M., Cancelo, M., & Calvo, N. (2013). Social and human capital as determining factors of entrepreneurship in the Spanish Regions. Investigaciones Regionales-Journal of Regional Research, (26), 115-139.

Oke, D., & Soetan, R. Business Environment and Domestic Private Investment in sub-Saharan Africa.

Rafiy, M., Harafah, L. M., Rahim, M., & Balaka, M. Y. Effect Of Role of Government and Social Capital For Small Industries Empowerment.

Reiling, L., Boyle, M. J., White, M. T., Wilson, D. W., Feng, G., Weaver, R., ... & Beeson, J. G. (2019). Targets of complement-fixing antibodies in protective immunity against malaria in children. Nature communications, 10(1), 1-13.

Roomi, M. A., & Parrott, G. (2008). Barriers to development and progression of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 17(1), 59-72.

Roomi, M. W., Monterrey, J. C., Kalinovsky, T., Rath, M., & Niedzwiecki, A. (2009). Patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in human cancer cell lines. Oncology reports, 21(5), 1323-1333.

Saeedikiya, M., & Aeeni, Z. (2020). Innovation and growth ambition of female entrepreneurs: a comparison between the MENA region and the rest of the world. MENA Journal of Cross-Cultural Management, 1(1), 7-19.

Sangolagi, K., & Alagawadi, M. (2016). Women entrepreneurs. International Journal of Advancement in Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Science, 3(1), 216-222.

Tundui, C. S., & Tundui, H. (2013). Microcredit, micro enterprising and repayment Myth: the case of micro and small women business entrepreneurs in Tanzania. American Journal of Business and Management, 2(1), 20-30.

Vossenberg, S. (2013). Women Entrepreneurship Promotion in Developing Countries: What explains the gender gap in entrepreneurship and how to close it. Maastricht School of Management Working Paper Series, 8(1), 1-27.

Xavier, B. B., Lammens, C., Ruhal, R., Kumar-Singh, S., Butaye, P., Goossens, H., & Malhotra-Kumar, S. (2016). Identification of a novel plasmid-mediated colistin-resistance gene, mcr-2, in Escherichia coli, Belgium, June 2016. Eurosurveillance, 21(27), 30280.

Zeb, A. (2018). Impact of formal networks on women entrepreneurship in Pakistan. Journal of Islamic Thought and Civilization, 8(1), 105-128.

Zoungas, S., Cameron, J. D., Kerr, P. G., Wolfe, R., Muske, C., McNeil, J. J., & McGrath, B. P. (2007). Association of carotid intima-medial thickness and indices of arterial stiffness with cardiovascular disease outcomes in CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 50(4), 622-630.

Zoungas, S., Cameron, J. D., Kerr, P. G., Wolfe, R., Muske, C., McNeil, J. J., & McGrath, B. P. (2007). Association of carotid intima-medial thickness and indices of arterial stiffness with cardiovascular disease outcomes in CKD. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 50(4), 622-630.




How to Cite

Formation of Social Capital by Women Entrepreneurship via Business Development Institutions of Government in Sindh. (2021). International Research Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 2(2), 272-281.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 227

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.