Development of The Work Engagement Scale


  • Qudsia Hareem Department of Humanities, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus. Author
  • Dr. Mahira Ahmad Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus. Author
  • Zaeema Farooq Lecturer, Department of Humanities, COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus. Author
  • Hafsa Mukhtar COMSATS University Islamabad, Lahore Campus. Author


Work Engagement, Physical Engagement, Cognitive Engagement, Emotional Engagement, Motivation and Organizational Engagement, Virtues and Self-Alignment, Exploratory Factor Analysis


The aim of the study was to develop a culturally relevant work engagement scale. The scale was developed to analyse the engagement of working population in their work using Kahn’s (1990) theory of work engagement A sample of 250 teachers (48 males and 152 females) ranging in age from 20 to 68 years (Mage: 35.92, SD: .553) were selected through convenient sampling from different private and public educational institutions of Pakistan. The Work Engagement Scale was developed in four stages, including Stage 1: Item Generation and Empirical Validation, Stage 2: Factor Structure and Construct Validity, Stage 3: Pilot Study, and Stage 4: Exploratory Factor Analysis. In stage 4, item factorability was analysed using KMO and Bartlett (0.93) which suggested that the sample was adequate for scale development. The commonalities for all items were above 0.3, showing that each item had some common variance with the other items. The rotated component matrix loaded 28 items on five factors, and after detailed qualitative analysis, those factors were named physical engagement: α=0.84, cognitive engagement: α=0.63, emotional engagement: α=0.84, organizational engagement and motivation: α=0.68, and virtues and self-alignment: α=0.86. Hence, the Work Engagement Scale: α=0.95 is a 28-item, culturally reliable scale developed in Urdu.


Ali, A. J. (2015). The role of religion and spirituality in the workplace. In Handbook of Faith and spirituality in the workplace (pp. 315–336). Springer.

Ali, A., Rehman, K. U., Yousaf, S., & Waseem, M. (2020). Impact of organizational culture on employee engagement: Evidence from Pakistan. South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management, 7(2), 220–241.

Ali, A.A., Mahmood, K., Javaid, Z.K., & Athar, M. (2024). Conflict Resolution, Psychological Well-Being and Marital Satisfaction among Spouses of Working People. Pakistan Journal of Law, Analysis and Wisdom, 3(2), 183–191.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th ed). American Psychological Association. American Psychological Association.

Bakker, A. B., & Albrecht, S. L. (2018). Work engagement: Current trends. Career Development International, 23(1), 4–11.

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2008). Towards a model of work engagement. Career Development International, 13(3), 209–223.

Bakker, A. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2010). Where to go from here: Integration and future research on work engagement. In A. B. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 265–268). Psychology Press.

Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Positive organizational behaviour: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 29(2), 147–154.

Bakker, A. B., Albrecht, S. L., & Leiter, M. P. (2011). Key questions regarding work engagement. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(1), 4–28.

Briscoe, J. P., Hall, D. T., & Frautschy DeMuth, R. L. (2006). Protean and boundaryless careers: An empirical exploration. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69(1), 30–47.

Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 595–616.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. Plenum press.

Den Hartog, D. N., & Belschak, F. D. (2012). Work engagement and Machiavellianism in the ethical leadership process. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(1), 35–47.

Diamond, M. A., & Allcorn, S. (1985). The open systems handbook: A guide to public renaissance and transformation. Abt Books.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7th ed). Pearson.

Hakanen, J. J., Schaufeli, W. B., & Ahola, K. (2008). The job demands-resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement. Work and Stress, 22(3), 224–241.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268–279.

Houle, S. A., Rich, B. L., Comeau, C. A., Blais, A. R., & Morin, A. J. (2022). The Job engagement scale: Development and validation of a short form in English and French. Journal of Business and Psychology, 1–29.

Hussain, I., & Ahmed, S. (2017). Impact of organizational culture on employees’ job performance: A study of pharmaceutical companies in Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 1(1), 1–18.

IBM, Corp. (released 2019). IBM SPSS Statistics for windows version 26.0. IBM, Corp.

Javaid, Z. K., Khan, K., & Anjum, A. R. (2023a). Antecedents of Employee Wellbeing: Review of Organizations in Pakistan. ESIC Market, 54(3), e313-e313.

Javaid, Z. K., Mahmood, K., & Ali, A. A. (2023b). Mediating Role of Mindfulness between Quality of Life and Workplace Stress among Working Women. Journal of Workplace Behavior, 4(1), 68-80.

Javaid, Z. K., Andleeb, N., & Rana, S. (2023c). Psychological Perspective on Advanced Learners’ Foreign Language-related Emotions across the Four Skills. Voyage Journal of Educational Studies, 3 (2), 191-207. DOI:

Johnson, A. B., & Johnson, C. D. (2019). Gender Differences in Conflict Resolution, Psychological Well-Being, and Marital Satisfaction Among Spouses of Working Individuals: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family Therapy, 45(3), 321-336.

Johnson, C. E. (2015). Meeting the ethical challenges of leadership: Casting light or shadow. Sage Publications.

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724.

Khan, K., & Javaid, Z. K. (2023). Analyzing Employee Performance through Workforce Diversity Management: Role of Workforce Diversity Characteristics. Foundation University Journal of Business & Economics, 8(2), 85-101.

Lavy, S., & Littman-Ovadia, H. (2017). My better self: Using strengths at work and work productivity, organizational citizenship behavior, and satisfaction. Journal of Career Development, 44(2), 95–109.

May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11–37.

Ramzan, M., Javaid, Z. K., & Ali, A. A. (2023a). Perception of Students about Collaborative Strategies Employed by Teachers for Enhancing English Vocabulary and Learning Motivation. Pakistan Journal of Law, Analysis and Wisdom, 2(02), 146-158.

Ramzan, M., Javaid, Z. K., & Khan, M. A. (2023b). Psychological Discursiveness in Language Use of Imran Khan’s Speech on National Issues. Global Language Review, VIII (II), 214-225.

Rauf, A., Akbar, A., & Ahmed, U. (2020). Impact of transformational leadership on employee engagement: The mediating role of organizational commitment. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences, 14(1), 119–139.

Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617–635.

Richter, J. M., Hämäläinen, P., & Pehkonen, I. (2018). Physical work demands and psychosocial working conditions as predictors of musculoskeletal pain: A cohort study comparing office workers with and without physically demanding work. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 19(1), 119.

Rosso, B. D., Dekas, K. H., & Wrzesniewski, A. (2010). On the meaning of work: A theoretical integration and review. Research in Organizational Behavior, 30, 91–127.

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.




How to Cite

Development of The Work Engagement Scale. (2024). International Research Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 5(1), 76-94.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 148

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.