Unveiling Heutagogical Practices in Distance Education: An In-Depth Analysis of University Teachers' Strategies for Exploration and Creation


  • Ruquia Altaf Mughal PhD Education Scholar Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif AJ&K. Author
  • Professor Dr. Muhammad Aslam Asghar Ex. Dean Faculty of Social Sciences, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif AJ&K. Author
  • Professor Dr. Muhammad Ishaq Dean Faculty of Social Sciences, Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University, Nerian Sharif AJ&K. Author


Heutagogy, Distance education, University teachers, Pedagogical strategies, Online learning


This study delves into heutagogical practices in distance education, specifically focusing on exploration and creation domains, through an in-depth analysis of strategies employed by university teachers. The objectives include evaluating the implementation of heutagogical activities for exploration, investigating heutagogical approaches fostering creative understanding, and exploring teachers' perceptions of challenges and opportunities in heutagogical implementation. The population comprises faculty members and Med/M.Phil students from Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) and Virtual University (VU) in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Proportional stratified random sampling is employed for participant selection, and a total of 176 faculty members constitute the sample. Research instruments, including a questionnaire and interview questions, undergo validation through expert opinions. The reliability of the questionnaire is confirmed through a pilot study. Descriptive statistics, mean scores, and standard deviations are used for quantitative data analysis, while qualitative data are thematically analyzed. Results indicate high agreement among teachers on heutagogical activities, both in exploration and creation domains. Teachers actively engage in asking questions, planning teaching strategies, and seeking information for tutorials. In the creation domain, they exhibit a strong inclination towards presenting problems in assignments, planning learning activities, and utilizing social media for knowledge sharing. Challenges in distance learning, particularly related to internet connectivity, are identified through qualitative analysis.


Allama Iqbal Open University and Virtual University (2019)

Bandura,A.&Locke(2013).The role of self-efficacy in goal based motivation, Journal of Applied Psychology.88(1). Pp 87-99)

Blaschke, L. M. (2012). Heutagogy and lifelong learning: A review of heutagogical practice and self-determined learning. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(1), 56-71.

Blaschke, L. M. (2013). E-learning and self-determined learning skills. Self-determined learning: Heutagogy in action, 55-68.

Blaschke, L. M., & Hase, S. (2016). Heutagogy: A holistic framework for creating twenty-first-century self-determined learners. The future of ubiquitous learning: Learning designs for emerging pedagogies, 25-40.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA:

Fernando Almeidai (2018)STRATEGIES TO PERFORM A MIXED METHODS STUDY European Journal of Education Studies - Volume 5 ( 1 )pp 137 -151

Gregory, S., Bannister-Tyrrell, M., Charteris, J., & Nye, A. (2018). Heutagogy in postgraduate education: Cognitive advantages for higher degree online students. In Postgraduate education in higher education. Springer.

Kuit, J. A., & Fell, A. (2010). Web 2.0 to pedagogy 2.0: A social-constructivist approach to learning enhanced by technology. In Critical design and effective tools for e-learning in higher education: Theory into practice (pp. 310-325). IGI Global.

Lisle, J. (2011). The benefits and challenges of mixing methods and methodologies: lessons learnt from implementing qualitatively led mixed methods research designs in Trinidad and Tobago. Caribbean Curriculum, 18, 87- 120.

Murphy, M. L. (2003). Semantic relations and the lexicon: Antonymy, synonymy and other paradigms. Cambridge University Press.Sage.

.Silva, T. (2011). Mixed methods: a reflection of its adoption in environmental reporting. Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, 8(1), 91-104.

Snowden, M., & Halsall, J. (2014). Community development: A shift in thinking towards heutagogy. International journal of Multi Disciplianary Comparative Studies, 1(3), 81-91.

Times Higher Education. (2015). Teaching excellence framework (TEF): Everything you need to know. Retrieved February 17, 2016, Wheeler, M. (2011). Martin heidegger.




How to Cite

Unveiling Heutagogical Practices in Distance Education: An In-Depth Analysis of University Teachers’ Strategies for Exploration and Creation. (2023). International Research Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 4(4), 134-148. https://irjmss.com/index.php/irjmss/article/view/175

Similar Articles

1-10 of 241

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.